The United States recognizes collective agreements.    The main mechanisms for resolving labour disputes are the Labour Court, which adjudicates labour disputes. The responsibility for promoting good industrial relations in Ireland now lies with the Workplace Relations Board, which provides a range of industrial relations services to prevent and resolve labour disputes and disagreements involving groups of workers, individual workers, employers and their representatives. Internal repair (IR) contracts are European leases where the tenant is usually responsible for repairs in the house or structure and can also pay a regular maintenance fee for the maintenance of common areas. The owner is usually responsible for the costs of structural and external repairs as well as the maintenance of the common areas. The Act is now contained in the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992, p. 179, according to which collective agreements are conclusively regarded as non-legally binding in the United Kingdom. This presumption can be rebutted if the agreement is in writing and contains an express provision that it should be legally enforceable. In Common Law, Ford v A.U.E.F. , the courts have already ruled that collective agreements are not binding. Second, the Industrial Relations Act 1971, introduced by Robert Carr (Minister of Labour in Edward Heath`s cabinet), provided that collective agreements were binding unless otherwise stipulated in a written contractual clause. After the fall of the Heath government, the law was reversed to reflect the tradition of legal abstention from labour disputes in British industrial relations policy. Workers are not forced to join a union in a particular workplace.
Nevertheless, most sectors of the economy with an average unionization of 70% are subject to a collective agreement. An agreement does not prohibit higher wages and better benefits, but sets a legal minimum, similar to a minimum wage. In addition, often, but not always, a national agreement on income policy is reached in which all trade unions, employers` associations and the Finnish government are involved.  A collective agreement, collective agreement (CBA) or collective agreement (CBA) is a written contract that is negotiated through the collective bargaining of employees by one or more unions with the management of a company (or with an employers` association) and that regulates the terms and conditions of employment of employees at work. This includes the regulation of wages, benefits and obligations of employees as well as the duties and responsibilities of the employer or employers, and often includes rules for a dispute resolution procedure. Although the collective agreement itself is unenforceable, many of the negotiated terms relate to remuneration, conditions, vacation, pensions, etc. These conditions are included in an employee`s employment contract (whether the employee is unionized or not); and the employment contract is of course enforceable. If the new conditions are unacceptable to individuals, they can appeal against their employer; But if the majority of workers agreed, the company will be able to dismiss the plaintiffs, usually with impunity. Collective agreements in Germany are legally binding, which is accepted by the population and does not give rise to any concern.  [Review failure] Although there has been (and probably still is) a “she and us” attitude in industrial relations in the UK, the situation in post-war Germany and some other Northern European countries is quite different. In Germany, the spirit of cooperation between the social partners is much stronger. For more than 50 years, German employees have been represented by law on company boards.
 Management and employees are considered together as “social partners”.  Unless a treaty contains provisions for other agreements or measures, only the text of the contract is legally binding. In general, an amendment to a treaty is binding only on those States that have ratified it, and agreements reached at review conferences, summits or meetings of States parties are politically binding, but not legally. .